Kaolin is a clay mineral which has a low shrink-swell capacity. It is a soft, earthy white mineral and has a wide variety of applications, most of which we use every day. The principal uses include ceramics (as the principal filling mass as well as the enamel cover, both to be fired), refractory and high-refractory (mullite) ceramics, paper industry (both filling and coating material, namely in chalk papers), rubber industry (filler), industry of plastics (filler) and even cosmetics and medicaments (filler in pills and tablets). A progressive kind of use of kaolin includes glass fibres.
In many parts of the world, it is colored pink-orange-red by iron oxide, giving it a distinct rust hue. Lighter concentrations yield white, yellow or light orange colors.